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          研究所課程

          碩士班選修(M字頭)

          課程名稱

          教 師

          學分

          內 容 介 紹

          動力氣候學

          隋中興

          3

          本課程介紹大氣-海洋平均氣候與低頻震盪的特徵及動力過程,特別是熱帶多尺度波動。主要介紹ITCZ和年週期變化,熱帶氣旋與波動,季節內振盪、年際震盪(如厄爾尼諾 - 南方濤動,印度洋偶極子)、年代際變化。課程著重理論和概念模型的講授,以利學生理解觀測現象背後的物理機制。授課對象為具備大氣-海洋科學背景的大四及研究所學生。

          大尺度雲與水汽過程

          隋中興

          2

          Earth atmosphere is uniquely regulated by water cycle. It spans wide spatiotemporal spectrum and many layers of governing physics. Through interactions with energy cycle and circulation, the moisture and cloud of highly fluctuating nature exhibit surprisingly coherent large-scale structure. The corresponding convective-radiative processes relevant in climate oscillations of different scales are essential part of climate dynamic.
          This course is designed to be a graduate level (both MS and Ph.D.) course, with emphasis on interactions between convection and tropical weather (tropical waves) and climate oscillations (the MJO and ENSO) as well as mechanisms maintaining convective-radiative equilibrium. One half to two third of the course is taught by lectures covering the fundamentals, bibliographic survey, literature reading [basic and general references]. The rest of the course time will be devoted to observational and modeling analysis.

          高等數值天氣預報

          楊明仁

          3

          This course will introduce the advanced applications of numerical weather prediction (NWP), mainly using the WRF model. The spectral and pseudospectral methods typically used in the global model and tropical cyclone studies will be discussed. Relaxation method used in solving the Laplace and Possion equations will be presented. Several methods for lateral boundaries used in regional models will be discussed. Class projects based on the material covered in this class will be assigned. Students taking this course are assumed to have the basic knowledge of finite-difference methods and numerical analysis.

          深對流特論

          楊明仁

          3

          The physical and dynamical processes of deep cumulus clouds, which usually occur in mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), tropical cyclones and cloud clusters, and orographic precipitation will be introduced. Examples of important deep-convection phenomena near the Taiwan area, such as typhoons and MCSs within a Mei-Yu front, and their associated dynamics will be demonstrated and discussed.

          Lecture Outline
          1. Types of Convective Clouds in Earth’s Atmosphere
          2. Basics of Cloud Microphysics
          3. Basics of Cloud Dynamics
          4. Cumulonimbus and Severe Storms
          5. Mesoscale Convective Systems
          6. Dynamics and Precipitation in Tropical Cyclones
          7. Instabilities within Deep Convection
          8. Gravity Waves Generation and Propagation

          大氣海洋流體力學特論

          郭鴻基

          1

          1. Conservation laws and basic equations:
          Rotation and stratification; potential temperature/density; the primitive equations;
          The vertical transform and shallow-water equations
          2. Circulation, vorticity, absolute vorticity and potential vorticity:
          Helmholtz theorem, Gauss’ theorem, Stoke’s theorem, and Kelvin circulation theorem;
          Bjerknes solenoidal term, Rossby and Ertel’s potential vorticity (PV) equation;
          Impermeability theorem of PV substance.
          3. Potential vorticity conservation and isentropic fluid dynamics:
          Thermodynamic reversibility and entropy,
          Diabaticity and mixing,
          The equations of motion in isentropic coordinates,
          Ertel’s PV and entropy conservation
          Quasi-geostrophy in isentropic coordinates
          4. Slow manifold quasi-balanced dynamics and 2D turbulence
          Bachelor’s hypothesis, selective decay of enstrophy;
          Geostrophic Adjustment, secondary circulation equation;
          Examples in vortex dynamics and filamentations.
          5. Hamiltonian formulation [*optional]
          Re-derivation of isentropic equations
          Particle-re-labelling symmetry and PV conservation (Chapter 7.2 of Salmon)
          Non-canonical Hamiltonian dynamics and PV as a Casmir (Chapter 7.10 of Salmon)

          高等大氣動力學

          郭鴻基

          3

          因應地球科學跨領域研究,高等大氣動力學課程的安排,除了傳統大氣動力學外,更廣泛包括大氣海洋流體力學 (Atmospheric Oceanic Fluid Dynamics, AOFD);課程也將加入新元素:例如探討空氣、水等流體性質對於生命科學與生物的影響;探討非線性動力數學建模,包含多重平衡與穩定、回饋、遲滯、同步、尺度分析等課題。課程重視數學思考與模式計算。

          氣候診斷

          盧孟明 / 隋中興

          2

          Climate predictions on weekly, monthly, seasonal and annual timescales involves many processes that operate among the atmosphere, ocean and land surface. Monitoring and analyzing the weekly to interannual climate variability is an efficient way to enhance our understanding of global and regional climate variability and the relationship with high-impact weather events.
          This course is designed to be a graduate level (both MS and Ph.D) course, with emphasis on learning about how to talk about natural variability from weekly to interannual time scales, and the fundamental statistical/quantitative methods used to diagnose the natural variability. The diagnostics aims to assess the nature of climate variations on differing time scales.
          The class will be a mixture of lectures, discussions, and student presentations. Half of the course is taught by interactive-oriented lectures covering the major topics that is relevant to the real-time climate monitoring and discussion. The rest of the course time will be devoted to observational and forecast data analysis and student presentations. There will be homework and midterm progress report to cover the lectures and a final oral presentation and written report on topic chosen by students.

          氣候變異與預測

          盧孟明

          3

          氣候變異概指由大氣、海洋、陸表共同組成的氣候系統相對於三十年或更長時期平均狀態的偏離程度,重要現象有以週、月、季、年為時間單位的短期氣候變化,以及與其相依相存的年代(十年)、多年代、世紀等長週期緩慢變化。氣候變異的發生機制決定於大氣、海洋、陸表交互作用的過程,了解這些過程以及各主要變異模態對全球和區域氣候的影響是發展氣候預測的科學基礎。
          本課程著重在時間尺度在三十年之內的氣候自然變化和預測,不包含尺度更長的氣候變遷或人為因素對氣候影響等課題。主要對象為碩博士班研究生,側重了解氣候變異主模態的現象與形成機制,氣候模式對氣候變異的模擬和預測能力,氣候可預測度來源的分析與解釋,氣候變異主模態與東南亞和西北太平洋以及臺灣天氣與氣候的關係。約三分之二的課程內容為講述動力氣候基本概念與文獻閱讀和討論,另三分之一為全球觀測和預測資料分析及討論。為加強對課程內容的了解,將有作業和期中考試,也將由學生在課程範圍內自己挑選想深入了解的研究題目在課堂討論並撰寫期末報告。

          熱帶氣候動力專題(1)-MJO

          盧孟明

          1

          This is an advanced Tropical Climate Dynamics course intended for graduate students. It will introduce key observational phenomena in tropics, and discuss dynamic mechanisms behind the observed phenomena. We plan to cover four topics (MJO, Monsoon, ENSO, Climate mean state) in successive four semesters. For this semester the special topic is MJO and the course outline is as following:
          1. Observed characteristics
          2. Eastward propagation and planetary scale selection
          3. Northward propagation in boreal summer
          4. Initiation
          5. Role of air-sea interaction and inter-annual variation

          熱帶氣候動力專題(2)-BSISO

          盧孟明

          1

          This is an advanced Tropical Climate Dynamics course intended for graduate students. It will introduce key observational phenomena in tropics, and discuss dynamic mechanisms behind the observed phenomena. We already covered the topic of MJO in 2018 Spring Semester and plan to continue covering four topics (BSISO, Monsoon, ENSO, Climate mean state) in successive four semesters.
          For this semester (Fall 2019) the special topic is BSISO and the course outline is as following:
          1. Observed characteristics
          2. Propagation and planetary scale selection
          3. Initiation process
          4. Role of air-sea and air-land interaction and interannual variation

          全球大氣環流

          黃彥婷

          3

          This course introduces the characteristics and the associated mechanisms of the large-scale circulation in the atmosphere. With the goal of bridging theories and observation using conceptual and numerical models with different level of complexity, we focus on the zonal mean circulation and briefly extend to the 3D circulation. Topics include: Hadley Circulation, midlatitude zonal mean circulation, the interactions between tropics and extratropics, and 3D atmospheric circulation. The model-projected trend (during global warming) of these circulations will be covered by paper discussions, which are designed to review and discuss the fundamental theories and simplified models.

          雲動力學

          吳健銘

          3

          This course focuses on the general dynamics of cloud systems. Models of fog, stratocumulus, shallow cumulus, deep cumulus, and orographic convection will be presented. Classes will include presentations by the instructor and students. Material covered in class will be supplemented by homework assignments, which require coding abilities. Numerical simulations of idealized convective systems will be conduced using the vector vorticity equation cloud resolving model (VVM). The class will conclude with student presentations on a chosen project based on the results of the numerical simulations.
          Class discussions will be held at the end of each topic or main subsection to discuss science questions arising from the material just presented. Each student is expected to have thought about such questions independently and be able to present these in class if called on.

          地球系統模式—物理過程

          吳健銘

          3

          本課程將介紹地球系統模式之對流過程並分單元授課。主要介紹如何在大尺度模式中表示積雲對流的過程,將使用高解析大渦模式(LES),雲解析模式(CRM), 之模擬結果簡化成概念模式。課程內容包含講演與模式實作與分析。將分為下述課題: 乾對流過程、淺對流過程、深對流過程、大渦模式與雲解析模式之介紹

           陸地大氣交互作用

          羅敏輝

           3

          Feedbacks between land and atmosphere play a central role in the interactive functioning of the Earth's climate. The goal of this course is to understand the essential aspects of roles of land processes in the climate systems. Topics covered include: (1) basics of terrestrial surface energy, water and carbon balances, (2) ecohydrology, and (3) land use and land cover changes. Students will read several critical papers in these topics, and will also learn to design, perform, and analyze numerical climate experiments/outputs with a land surface model and climate model for their final project.

          中尺度氣象學

          游政谷

          2

          隨著近年來觀測儀器(技術)的進步以及高解析度數值模式的廣泛應用,使得我們慢慢了解到,較劇烈且具傷害力的天氣現象(如強烈降水與風暴)常侷限於中小尺度的範疇??墒怯伸栋l生這些劇烈天氣的原因相當多樣化且複雜,傳統的綜觀氣象理論基礎已無法滿足我們對於這些現象的了解。本課程的主要目的為介紹實際大氣中的中尺度天氣現象,並就各種不同的中尺度天氣系統,廣泛說明它們內部的結構與隱含的物理與動力過程。這其中,現階段的了解為授課重心,然而目前最新的研究成果也會在課堂上適時予以補充說明。課程內容將針對下列主題作有系統的闡釋:(1)中尺度的基本概念 、(2)中尺度天氣現象的觀測分析與預報、(3)大氣對流的觀念、(4)中緯度及熱帶中尺度對流系統、(5)劇烈風暴、(6)鋒面的中尺度特徵與其伴隨的雨帶。

          地物流力

          陳世楠 / 林和

          3

          This is an upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level course on geophysical waves and instability. We will focus on slowly evolving flow that is nearly in geostrophic balance and thus satisfies the “Quasi-geostrophic (QG) approximation”. The primary subjects are:

          1. QG
          2. Rossby wave
          3. Baroclinic instability
          4. Wave-mean-flow interactions

          The course format is a combination of lectures and student project, with student-led presentation/ discussion.

          雲與環境專題討論

          陳維婷

          3

          本課程主旨在討論研究「台灣極端空氣汙染事件在不同天氣型態下之特性」,經由對觀測與模擬資料之分析瞭解當前東亞綜觀天氣型態下台灣PM2.5與環境條件、邊界層、雲物理、輻射收支、大尺度環流之關係,討論其中牽涉之物理過程,並推估未來氣候變遷情境下台灣PM2.5高汙染事件的可能改變。

          氣候變遷科學

          陳維婷

          3

          ? This course provides a solid foundation in climate change science, including lectures on the physical basis of anthropogenic climate change, natural climate variations, and global climate models.
          ? The students need to work on projects to obtain a hands-on experience on building toy models and analyzing the observational data sets and global model outputs.
          ? The student will read and present selected sections of the 2013 IPCC 5th Assessment Report (AR5) of Working Group I Physical Basis, as well as the related literatures, to understand the current status of climate change research.

          Prerequisite on student levels:
          ? 4th-year undergrad or above in Atmospheric Sciences major, or upon the approval of the instructor.
          ? The students need to have basic capabilities to analyze and/or visualize numerical data using scientific software/programming language, such as FORTRAN, GrADS, IDL, Matlab, or NCL.
          ? They also need to have basic understandings to the earth system sciences, atmospheric thermodynamics and radiation, statistics, and climatology.

          資料同化

          連國淵

          3

          Data assimilation is an important field in numerical modeling and analysis in geoscience. It allows observation information to be objectively and optimally ingested into numerical models using statistical theories, providing analysis data which are essential for initializing model prediction and for climate studies.
          This course will introduce the concept of data assimilation and study several common objective analysis and data assimilation schemes in geoscience, from simple interpolation to advanced methods such as variational data assimilation and ensemble Kalman filter. Recent advancement in this field and the implementation and application in operational numerical weather prediction will also be introduced.

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